chandrayaan 3

Chandrayaan 3: Unlocking Mysteries of the Moon!

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is launching Chandrayaan-3 as a follow-up to the Chandrayaan-2 project, which faced difficulties during its soft landing in 2019. In August 2023, the mission plans to deploy a lander and rover in the highlands close to the Moon’s south pole to demonstrate end-to-end landing and roaming capabilities. The mission includes a lander/rover and a propulsion module with upgrades to ensure a safe landing. The propulsion module will continue to orbit the Moon and serve as a satellite relay for communications. With Chandrayaan-3, India hopes to become the fourth nation to successfully complete a controlled landing on the moon. The deep space communication antenna of ISRO and ground station assistance from NASA and ESA are essential to the mission’s success.

chandrayaan 3

Chandrayaan 3: Spacecraft and Subsystems

The Vikram lander is a box-shaped lander with four landing legs and four engines, named after the father of the Indian space program, Vikram Sarabhai. It weighs 1749.86 kg and has side-mounted solar panels that can produce 738 W. The lander is equipped with cameras, altimeters, and accelerometers for a secure touchdown. “Wisdom,” the Pragyan rover’s name, has a rectangular chassis and navigational cameras. It utilizes Rx/Tx antennas to communicate with the lander.

The Chandra Surface Thermophysical Experiment, ILSA, RAMBHA, and a passive laser retroreflector array for lunar range experiments will all be aboard the Vikram lander. Both the Propulsion Module/Orbiter and the Pragyan Rover will conduct the Spectropolarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) experiment, which will examine the local surface element’s composition.

Chandrayaan-3 Takes Off on 6-Week Moon Mission

India’s third lunar exploration mission, Chandrayaan-3, launched successfully at the appointed time from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. India will become the fourth nation to successfully land a spacecraft on the moon during this mission, showcasing its proficiency in a smooth and safe lunar landing.
The spacecraft was launched using a heavy-lift launch vehicle called the GSLV Mark 3 (LVM 3).

The spacecraft is scheduled to arrive at the moon on August 23 after traveling there for one calendar month. After arrival, it will run for one lunar day, which is equal to 14 days on Earth. 14 days on Earth are equivalent to one day on the Moon.

This is a follow-up effort by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) after the Chandrayaan-2 mission encountered difficulties during its soft landing in 2019.

Chandrayaan-3: Why is landing on the Moon so challenging?

ISRO is launching the Chandrayaan-3 mission to attempt a soft landing on the Moon, despite being the first human landing over 50 years ago. The mission has faced numerous failures, including the Vikram lander crash in 2019, Beresheet in 2019, and Hakuto-R in April. China’s Chang’e-5 mission in 2013 was the first attempt, but Luna remains a challenging target despite years of space exploration.

Reaching the Moon

Before Chandrayaan-3 landing on the Moon, it is crucial to determine its distance from Earth. The Moon is 3,84,400 kilometers away, and the path taken by the spacecraft can be significantly longer. Failures can occur on this journey, even for missions without landing. NASA’s Lunar Flashlight mission was terminated due to a propulsion system failure, preventing it from entering the lunar orbit.

On the Moon, a slowdown

Spacecraft returning to Earth can use Earth’s thick atmosphere for friction while entering the Moon’s thin atmosphere requires a propulsion system to slow down. This requires carrying more fuel, which increases the spacecraft’s weight, causing the “Tyranny of the Rocket Equation.” This problem is similar to the “Tyranny of the Rocket Equation.

How to navigate the Moon

The absence of GPS on the Moon means that spacecraft cannot rely on satellite networks for precise landings. This requires onboard computers to make quick calculations and decisions, especially when nearing the last few kilometers. The Moon’s uneven surface, craters, and boulders make landing on either side of the Moon challenging, as sensors may become confused due to the dust generated by propulsion systems. This could lead to catastrophic consequences for the mission.

chandrayaan 3

Chandrayaan-3 Mission

Chandrayaan-3 is a follow-on mission aiming to demonstrate safe landing and roving on the lunar surface using an indigenous Lander module (LM), Propulsion module (PM), and a Rover. The mission aims to develop and demonstrate new technologies for interplanetary missions. The Lander will soft land at a specified lunar site, while the Rover will conduct in-situ chemical analysis during its mobility. The Propulsion Module carries the Lander module from launch vehicle injection to the final lunar 100 km circular polar orbit. The mission objectives include safe landing, Rover roving, and conducting in-situ scientific experiments.

The Lander features advanced technologies such as laser and RF-based altimeters, laser Doppler velocimeters, laser Gyro-based inertial measurement, 800N Throttleable Liquid Engines, 58N attitude thrusters, Powered Descent Trajectory design, Hazard Detection and Avoidance camera, and Landing Leg Mechanism. Special tests on the Lander have been successfully planned and successfully carried out on a lunar simulant test bed.

How Chandrayaan-3 differs from Chandrayaan-2 ?

Chandrayaan-3 differs from Chandrayaan-2 in that it carries a payload called Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE), which analyzes spectral and polarimetric measurements of Earth from lunar orbit. SHAPE, developed by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) Observatory, helps scientists analyze reflected light from exoplanets and determine if they qualify for habitability. SHAPE equips the spacecraft’s propulsion module with the ability to analyze the polarization of light. It achieves this by splitting incoming light into its constituent colors and analyzing each color individually.


Is Chandrayaan 3 a success or a failure?

Gujarat Chief Minister Bhupendra Patel praises India’s Chandrayaan-3 moon mission launch as another victory under Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Will Chandrayaan-3 be launched?

The Chandrayaan-3 mission was launched at 2.35 p.m. today (July 14) from Sriharikota’s Satish Dhawan Space Centre.

Who is the Chandrayaan-3 leader?

Ritu Karidhal Shrivastava, a female rocket scientist from India, is in charge of the mission.

Chandrayaan-3: What happened?

Phase one of the project saw the successful completion of the 100 km circumpolar orbit injection.

Who is Chandrayaan’s father?

Vikram Sarabhai, a scientist, industrialist, and innovator who won awards, is revered as the “Father of the Indian Space Programme.”

What is the first artificial satellite launched by India?

Aryabhata, India’s first satellite, was designed, fabricated, and launched on April 19, 1975, using a Soviet Kosmos-3M rocket.

Who found water on the moon?

The largest achievement was the 2008 finding of water on the Moon, conducted by India’s Chandrayaan expedition.